One of the major obstacles identified by Jeremy Morley, a lawyer who had worked on cases of child abduction by parents in Japan, was that Japanese family law was not aligned with the parameters of the Hague Convention and that new legislation was needed for Japanese signature and ratification.  Hans van Loon, Secretary General of the Hague Convention on Private International Law, said that “Japanese civil law emphasizes that in cases where custody cannot be obtained by mutual agreement between the parents, the Japanese Family Court will resolve the matter on the basis of the best interests of the child. However, compliance with family court judgments is essentially voluntary, making any decision unenforceable unless both parents agree.  Yuko Nishitani, associate professor at Tohoku University and director of The Hague Academy of International Law, agreed that “the real reason Japan has not signed the Hague Convention is that there is no enforcement mechanism in the country.” The signing of the Convention would reveal these errors.  Articles 11 and 35 expressly urge States Parties to take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to combat the illegal transfer and non-transfer of children abroad and to promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or adherence to existing agreements and measures to prevent child abduction. The JFBA`s legal transfer service is in principle only available once per applicant. The service cannot be used a second time if the applicant .B not ask for legal proceedings or REL, for example, because he or she had different perspectives or if he could not agree with a lawyer on legal fees. If the two parties fail to reach an agreement, the court will, in principle, decide the return of the child to the state of his or her usual residence. However, the court may refuse to surrender to the child in an exceptional case, taking into account the child`s relevant information about the child`s living conditions, the opinion of the child and the arguments of both parties if one of the following conditions applies.